Thanks to Donald Rumsfeld for making the very Zen, Philosophical concept of “unknown unknowns” rather mainstream. This notion reaches deeply in the field of analytics where my career focuses. I can’t ever say “there are unknown unknowns” in a presentation without someone attributing it to Donald Rumsfeld’s wisdom.
It’s easy to be cognizant of questions known to us for which we simply don’t know the answer. For example, when renting an apartment, I know to ask if there is a time after which loud music is prohibited. It’s something I learned to ask after once renting an apartment in a complex without such a rule. It’s a known unknown, which I resolve by asking the question.
However, I learned after renting another apartment that I didn’t know to ask if the parking space directly under my apartment was mine or someone else’s. I guess I assumed the space under my apartment was mine and so if I came home late, opening and closing the garage door would only disturb me.
Everything we ask today was once something we didn’t know to ask – an unknown unknown. In fact, I can’t recall any instance – renting an apartment, taking a job, buying a car – in which I wished I knew to ask a question about something that later surprised me. After experiencing some gotcha we suffer from that ignorance, we know to ask it the next time. It’s now a known unknown – a question we know to ask in the future.
Throughout our lives we collect these questions, these tips and tricks of life. If we’re smart, we can smugly go about life stating, “Fool me once, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on me.” We grow into wise old folks who don’t fall for scams and rookie mistakes.
The problem is the rules are always changing. If we’re lucky an outdated rule is merely useless. Applying an outdated rule is often costly. That can be frustrating, tiresome, and in the jungle, it’s fatal. But knowing the rules are always changing is 99% of the solution!
Awareness of the Unknown Unknowns
I’ve often mentioned The Beginner’s Mind as the single most important aspect of Zen practice … if one must have a “one thing”, as Curly suggested in “City Slickers”. It’s #1 of the Three Zen Stories upon which the Eternal Fishnu’s teachings are based.
Couple the Beginner’s Mind with the knowledge known to even novice Zen practitioners that change is the only constant, you never walk in the same river twice, blah blah blah. With these two near-axioms in mind, in order to evolve with change, we must constantly learn the new rules. And to learn these new rules, we must make room for them by clearing out space by dumping out the old stuff.
The inability to cultivate a Beginner’s Mind leads to a brittleness that easily shatters with a well-placed strike. That well-placed strike can be in the form of a cat catching a mouse or someone losing their life savings to a scammer.
The Beginner’s Mind is the awareness of unknown unknowns. But an awareness of unknown unknowns doesn’t sound like the primary Zen advice of having a laser-like focus in the Now. It sounds suspiciously like the senselessness of worrying about the countless things that could happen, the bulk of which will not happen.
That’s one way to look at it. However, one could also look at a lack of awareness of unknown unknowns as un-Zen in the form of clinging to a past that no longer exists – i.e. applying rules you’ve already learned that lost its validity due to constant change. For the most part, being in the Now means to keep your mind focused on the present where things are actionable. It doesn’t mean to ignore the value of your unique experiences towards actions moving you in the direction of your path.
Our LCD McGoogle World
Awareness of unknown unknowns must be built into all planning. If you’re truly honest with yourself, do you recall any plan that was executed as planned? Even if successful, the plan succeeded due to heroics addressing the unknown unknowns. Rather, unknown unknowns are swept under the rug as we sign off on a plan, coerced into a belief it is bullet-proof and/or we knew that all along.
The way to build in an awareness of unknown unknowns into all planning is not just beyond the scope of this blog, but requires volumes of books. However, in a nutshell, it requires embracing the complexity of the world – in Zen terms, living the notion that change is constant.
In very secular and “tip and trick” terms, this means mastering the fundamentals. Fundamentals are relatively few core concepts underlying a wide range of application. Underlying the complexity of the Universe, or good software, or good practice of medicine and law, are layers of composition of simple rules.
The problem with mastery of fundamentals is that mastery of relatively few rules on the surface looks a ton harder to master than learning a lot of simple tips and tricks. The key is this: How many billions of tips and tricks do you need to learn to fully cover a knowledge domain – versus how hard it is to master a relatively few “tough” concepts from which you can answer almost anything?
As with any notion of foundations, it must be done correctly, thus requiring a long time to master. In these McGoogle days of immediate gratification (quick ROI), notions of true mastery of are considered indulgences.
Humility, Not Stupidity
Don’t mistake the Beginner’s Mind for stupidity. The Beginner’s Mind is genuine humility – the full acceptance that the only reality is the Universe, as opposed to the pitifully inadequate model of the world housed in our brains, as deficient as an aquarium is a model of the ocean.
However, it’s not a matter of dropping your experiences from your brain. Your experiences are data encoded in your brain. It’s a matter of dropping your beliefs from your mind, the rules you’ve computed from that data long ago. Only then can you re-compute rules based on that same data and new information now at hand. Your experiences are still of value today just as are the somewhat and arguably outdated works of Aristotle, Freud, or even the Buddha himself.
People unaware of the unknown unknowns are often insulted by others with the facetious phrase, “He knows everything.” That person to which the insult was thrown would unwittingly take it as a compliment. But that insult is hurled out of frustration to people unaware of unknown unknowns who are like huge boulders, a dam in the river – steadfast, unmovable, an obstacle to the flow of all else.
But don’t be hard on those people because we’re all guilty of it most of the time.
Years ago Mrs. Hanamoku took a few series of watercolor classes from the late Roland Roycraft. He was in his 80s at the time, still very much active. He was an excellent teacher and very open with teaching his wonderfully distinct style. Mrs. Hanamoku asked him about any concern he may have in divulging his hard-won techniques. He said, “I stay a mile ahead.”
That lesson made a big impact on both Mrs. Hanamoku and I in how we approach our careers. I spend a consistently significant percentage of my time “staying a mile ahead”. This is not for “competitive” reasons, but to stay in the light, out of the shadowy ruins of what is no longer there.
This is especially important in a field that changes so rapidly. However, “change” isn’t quite the right way to put it. New technologies (hardware and software) do come to market at a rapid pace – the buzzword flavors of the month. But for most enterprises out there, change is actually not really that fast.
New technologies quickly become the core of innovative startups incubating the industries of the future. But it can take years, sometimes decades, for established enterprises to adopt the new technologies to a noticeable extent. For example, neural networks and functional programming are older than my almost sixty years! We think change is faster than it really is because the media (journals, bloggers, online classes, professional conventions) place more emphasis the glamorous latest and greatest stuff.
Change is constantly around us, but it is variably fast and slow from one place to another.
I thought about this over this weekend, having completed my fourth week at a new job. It’s a job that has so far been limited to pretty much SQL – and that looks to be the case for the foreseeable future. There is indeed no room there for the fluency of the cutting-edge skills I’ve diligently and mindfully built over the past few years; particularly machine learning, functional programming, abstract algebra, Databricks (Spark/Pyspark).
All the other programmers at my new job are as good at SQL as I am! And they should be – they’ve been doing it long enough. Every tool has a limited scope, whether it’s SQL, watercolor, or a bulldozer. There’s only so much you can do with it, only so much expertise to build. That means, no matter how good you become, because such tools have limited scope, everyone is capable of eventually catching up to you.
If you took to SQL back in 1995 like a duck to water, back when its “declarative, set-based paradigm” was a bit mind-boggling to programmers used to procedural languages like COBOL, you had a golden skill. But by 2019 everyone will be as good as you are. The SQL language itself really hasn’t changed all that much in the past 25 years. The vast majority of SQL authored by business analysts, ETL developers, data scientists, and application programmers is the same stuff.
I mis-stepped my way back to 1995, caught in the past when SQL was a shiny thing. It’s reminiscent of life for me as a teenager, trapped in the past of a once booming pineapple industry of Hawaii, destined to work on the same plantations that attracted some of my first ancestors to Hawaii 80 years earlier. For them, it was a boon at that time, but for me, someone much too late to the party.
Almost 40 years ago, I found my way out of that ghost town of the once thriving pineapple industry of Hawaii. Three months out of high school the Universe presented an opportunity. I diligently fully assimilated, within a few weeks, a 4-foot stack of 3-ring binder manuals on the AlphaMicro system. My diligence and mindfulness transported me to a different place, with a different brand of boom time – a place where I can grow instead of spending precious life treading in the zero-sum games of an industrial ghost town.
This mis-step is perfectly OK. It isn’t the first nor will it be the last. Today, I have to again escape a metaphorical dying pineapple plantation town. Every day at lunch, I go downstairs from the 10th floor offices and sit under this nice tree, sort of meditating, unnoticed by the bustling crowds of a downtown. I meditate through a set of advanced books on functional programming, domain-driven design, and abstract algebra. Why? It’s the samurai ethic of diligently perfecting your skills so that when opportunity comes calling on you, you are ready for it.
To be certain, of course there are much worse things than falling behind in one’s career at an advanced age. There will always be someone with worse problems – and conversely, someone smarter, stronger, faster, more beautiful, more likable. The point of this post has nothing to do with winning. It has to do with being more aware and diligent than the frog in the proverbial pot moving slowly towards boiling – independent of what others are doing or where they are at.
Mind you, I’m not concerned about being the best – in this case being one of many interchangeable SQL programmer resources. Chasing such a thing is dukkha. Rather, I avoid the stasis of being a commodity. What do I mean by that?
We’ve seen those “cellular automata” computer programs where many things move around a screen, one thing eats another, others starve to death. Eventually, the movement on the screen slows down and stops in a static pattern. Every now and then, something has to shake it up to keep it going.
I sense that this mis-step is really a wonderful thing. As the theoretical 11th dan in Aikido is a white belt (a double-wide white belt), perhaps at almost sixty years of life and forty years of hard work, this deja vu sequel (SQL – get it – hahaha) is my 11th dan life test.
To help drive home the meaning of the Five Aggregates as I wrote about in Part 1, let’s try an exercise devising a high-level architecture for an Artificial Intelligence mapping to the Five Aggregates. In some ways it could be easier for us to relate to an Artificial Intelligence than our own intelligence since the parts (computers) were created by us. Using our brain to figure out how our brain works is way tougher than using our brain to understand how something that we created works.
The theme of this blog site is Zen/Buddhism from the point of view of a software developer; who finds much insight into ourselves by building software, which are models of things we do. It’s my Zen Art. That is, I research and build “A.I.” systems in the hope of gaining a better understanding into how our consciousness works – as opposed to the businessman’s purpose for A.I. being a dream of incredibly cheap, non-complaining, replicatable, re-programmable workers.
If you’re not a “computer person”, I still think someone with just a casual knowledge of software development could appreciate this high-level exercise of mapping of the Five Aggregates to a hypothetical A.I. architecture.
Before diving into this exercise I’d like to mention that because the frontier of A.I. is rapidly changing at the time of this writing, January 2019. Much of what I write here could be either obsolete, wrong, or very obvious a month from now. So I won’t burden you further by qualifying every other sentence with ” … at the time of this writing …”.
The term “A.I.” is often interchangeably and incorrectly used with “Machine Learning”. What makes it confusing is that whatever we call A.I. depends upon how you define “intelligence”. And there really isn’t a solid definition. For the sake of this blog, it may be easier to first consider an un-intelligent thing. An un-intelligent thing needs to be told every single detail about what to do. That includes practically all machines such as cars and computers.
It may sound strange to those who don’t know much about how computers work to call it un-intelligent? In workshops I’ve presented on “data mining” topics, there are a couple of things I often say that are obvious when you’re mindful about it, but overlooked as you go about in the normal life frame of mind:
What is the best thing about computers? They do exactly what you tell them to do. What is the worst thing about computers? They do exactly what you tell them to do.
What’s obvious to you may not be obvious to a computer. For example, consider the obvious observation that pregnant humans are female. It’s ridiculously obvious to us, but imagine if a computer figured that out all by itself.
It’s not necessarily that a computer itself is stupid. Rather, it’s the way we manually program them into these “intellectually brittle” dead ends. Instead, an intelligence must be self-adaptive in a very ambiguous world.
Currently, there are three major categories of machine learning: Supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. They are often presented as three kinds of tools, as if you were deciding between the purchase of a sedan, a pick-up truck, or a van. Rather, the three types of machine learning are three modes of learning, all required by an intelligence.
Before getting into a little analogy about the three modes of machine learning, I’d like to mention a fourth way a computer “learns” – programming. We may refer to propaganda and advertisements “programming” us, but that’s not correct. Rather, we are “trained” through those means. Programming a human would entail opening up our brain and manually wire up our neurons and manually adjust neurotransmitters.
Supervised Learning should really be called “Training”. Imagine you’re three years old sitting in your marine biologist mom’s office. You’re looking through a picture book of marine animals. You ask her about each picture, but since she’s busy, she only can glance over and answer with the general class of the animal; fish, mammal, crustacean, etc.
Eventually, you will figure out, find the patterns of what differentiates the mammals from the fishes. You’ll notice the whales and dolphins have tails pointing sideways and sharks have tails pointing up and down. The mammals also have fewer “fins”. If the picture has enough resolution you may notice fish have scales, mammals don’t. In the future, when you encounter such a creature you’ve never seen before, you’ll at least know whether it’s a mammal or fish.
Remember, this is training, not programming. To be programmed, your mom needs to get into your head and wire the neurons up and tune all sorts of other things in there.
Now, let’s say your mom is incredibly busy and just leaves the three year old you with the book. You’re on your own classifying the animals in the pictures. Without being given any labels for the animals, you may classify orcas and great whites together or blue whales and whale sharks together. Is that wrong? Orcas and great whites are predators of other big critters, blue wales and whale sharks are huge creatures that filter feed little critters.
The trade-off between supervised and unsupervised learning is that the former saves you lots of time learning what humanity already knows, whereas the latter allows you to be creative. Even if some knowledgeable adult were 100% available to teach you via supervised learning, you’re still being trained, not programmed.
Remember in the movie, City Slickers, where Norman the calf is walking just minutes after being born? No one taught the calf to walk. The calf awkwardly gets on his feet, stands very shaky, starts taking clumsy steps, going through cycles of trying, receiving feedback, adjusting neuron connections in his brain and muscles, trying again. After many fast cycles of this incremental training, the calf can run. That’s reinforcement learning.
The A.I’s Job
Even we mighty humans aren’t “intelligent” about everything. We each have our unique sets of skills, both seemingly natural and learned. So let’s give our A.I. a job. Let’s give this Artificial Intelligence the skill of a CEO of a corporation, an A.I. CEO. Let’s refer to this as an aCEO.
Taking advantage of what computers can do better than brains, the aCEO could be more effective than a human CEO if it could have a superior:
“Feelers” into all aspects across the corporation.
Feelers to life outside the walls of the corporation throughout its ecosystem.
A map of how all the parts relate, inside the enterprise as well as outside in the ecosystem.
Keep in mind too that it doesn’t need to look or act like a human CEO. It just needs to come up with superior plans and decisions and communicate and manage the executions effectively.
If we think of an enterprise as an organism, the CEO, real or artificial, is the brain organ of an enterprise. The entire enterprise is the “body”. The departments are like the other organs. Cash flow is like blood. What the company produces is their job, their livelihood. I guess that makes the human employees like our “gut bacteria”.
As with the human version of the Five Aggregates, the aCEO version is not a “series of five steps to consciousness”. It’s more the “five partsof sentience” where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts . So I present them in numerical order, but do jump back and forth to other parts. The illustration below provides a high-level view of how the five parts relate.
The 1st Aggregate – Integrated Data Model (Body/Form)
The body of the aCEO would of course imply the hardware, the computers. But body/form is much more than that. It’s information about things going on around us. In the Buddhism context, these are “conditioned” forms, the phenomenon that everything is resulting from everything else. The fact that things are moving and interacting means things are impermanent.
So the aCEO needs a way to obtain current data about things related to the business it runs. This current data could be current snapshots or just what has changed since the last time.
At this point, the data coming into the system from its surroundings is raw. To use an analogy based on the old “data mining” term, it’s like mud in a gold pan. But it’s mud from a place we think contains gold, not just randomly looking around. The 1st aggregate also filters out and cleanses most of the mud/crap before it gets to the Perception functions, the 2nd Aggregate. At the end of the 1st Aggregate, five pounds of mud is reduced to a couple ounces of “black sand”.
The 1st Aggregate further does some rough “data prep” on that cleansed data. This data prep organizes the cleansed data to a set of statistics about the data, the composition of values, and even looks for interesting “events” such as spikes in values, trending up or down. Still, this is just data.
This is pretty much where Data Warehouses are at. It encompasses all the processing and massaging of data from many different data sources. But it’s just data at this point – not much different from corn sitting in silos, grown and harvested with a combine. In general, this is where “Business Intelligence” system passes that integrated data to humans to make sense of with their superior Human Intelligence. Human analysts, data scientists, managers. “BI Developers” will author reports using tools such as SQL Server Reporting Services, analysts will visualize data with tools such as Tableau, PowerBI, or even good ol’ Excel. Data scientists could develop predictive models.
The 2nd Aggregate – Alerts (Sensation/Feeling)
Every machine or creature must operate within parameters conducive to its nature, whether it was designed by some intelligence or evolved over time. For example, without special suits (ex. SCUBA gear), humans thrive within strict parameters of atmospheric pressure, temperature, etc.
When it gets too cold, we put on more clothes. When we’re thirsty, we seek water. These are feelings, they are metrics. Your car dashboard is full of them. Going too fast, ease up on the gas pedal.
I make a living as a Business Intelligence consultant, which is all about maximizing performance of a business’ resources. A big part of that is deploying analytics tools conveying metrics to workers of all types – human employees in many roles as well as machines such as computer servers and manufacturing equipment. A tired cliche in my field is “what gets measured gets done”. We call these metrics “Performance Indicators”.
Metrics are determined by executives and “MBA types” and monitored throughout the execution of enterprises processes. Metrics aren’t just a business thing. Practically everything we do involves metrics, from our health (blood pressure, weight, temperature, cholesterol), to driving a car (speed, temperature, distance from other cars), to economic health (unemployment rate, GDP, stock market value).
An example of a business metric, in fact a key metric (called Key Performance Indicators – KPI) is Revenue Growth. What’s interesting about revenue growth is that no growth is usually bad, but too much growth can be bad too. Sometimes we need to limit growth to give the infrastructure time to catch up. Growth that’s too fast can overwhelm the infrastructure leading to mistakes, which lowers quality, which pisses off customers, which sends them away, which lowers revenue.
So a metric is more than a measurement, just one number. It’s more than simply stating Revenue growth is 10% over this time last year. Because too little or too much can be bad, a metric includes a component called a target, in this case, something like 5% growth, no less and no more.
Another component of a metric is a trend. Is the metric trending upwards, downwards, or steady? This is important to know because nothing stays still. Imagine your revenue is trending up and today it’s at goal, but it’s still trending up, which means tomorrow it won’t be where you want it.
The most interesting component of a metric is the status. Remember, too little or too much is bad. But we can live with a margin of error, say 2% on either side. So anything within 3% to 7% is good, from between 0% and less than 3% or greater than 7% and less than 10% is not good. But less than 0% or greater than 10% is bad. In general, the good, not good (warning), and bad are represented by green, yellow, or red icons.
The status of metrics are analogous to our feelings in the human 2nd Aggregate – pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral. The 2nd aggregate is interested in the status value of the metrics mostly so we know what needs attention – correction. In other words what metrics are in a bad (painful) status? In contrast, the target is the domain of the 5th Aggregate, the goals/objectives of the enterprise.
As with our human feelings, there are very many metrics (sometimes thousands) monitored in an enterprise. Some are very high level, such as Revenue Growth and Profit. But most are lower level, for example, the uptime of the reporting system, minimizing office break room expenses, and maximizing employee retention.
Before heading into the 3rd Aggregate, let’s review the process for a human. When pains are felt in the 2nd Aggregate, the 3rd Aggregate tries to recognize what’s going on, the web of goals/desires/beliefs of the 5th Aggregate engage the thoughts of the 4th Aggregate to make everything in the 5th Aggregate happy.
The 3rd Aggregate – Functions (Perceptions)
The 3rd Aggregate is mostly what we’re familiar with in regard to software systems of today. Software systems of today are machines automating some well-defined and tedious job at a really large scale.
If the job that software is automating was not well-defined, not highly predictable, we humans wouldn’t be able to encode the rules as software. But the real world outside of today’s somewhat totalitarian corporate culture is not highly predictable. That world outside is made up of countless independent things, at least seven billion of them with minds of their own. This is where Artificial Intelligence differs from conventional software. Intelligence deals with ambiguity and complexity.
Software today is made up of a designed (meaning “human-crafted”) web of designed functions. Functions take inputs, do some processing within the confines of a “black box”, and output an answer. Examples of computer functions range from something as simple as addition – takes in two numbers, adds them, and output the sum – to something as complicated as an image processor that takes in a picture, does a lot of processing, and outputs where it calculates what are faces, bananas, and cars.
It’s OK for now to let humans write logically tough functions. It beats the hell out of evolution which does things on its own time – like millions of years. But we still need the ability for a large percentage of the functions to self-organize, organize without human intervention. An A.I. consists of so many functions and require constant updating. It would be an insane nightmare for programmers to maintain that much, yet, that’s pretty much how software is currently maintained.
A general purpose programming language (for example, Java, C++, C#) is intended to encode a model of the world that is runnable by a computer. Because the world is so complex, programming languages must be very versatile. So programming by humans is tough. However, Nature found a way for the human brain to model the world. Our neurons wire according to what we’re exposed to at the time and place of our life.
So programming is hard. We try to mitigate that difficulty by creating specialized programming languages on top of specialized software. For example, SQL is a programming language limited to creating, reading, updating, and deleting rows from a table. Of course, there are libraries of packaged functions preventing “reinventing” of code that works across a wide array of applications.
Functions are machines, whether little or big, simple or complicated, natural or man-made, material or encoded. They all take in some inputs and output something. For example, a coffee machine that takes in water, ground coffee, and electricity, and outputs hot coffee. A single neuron is a function. It accumulates charge from many synapses on its dendrites, and at some very complicated point it “fires” a charge out on its axon.
Functions share a couple of very important characteristics. They shield we civilians from the intricacies (nice way of saying “yucky guts”) of how they really work. Imagine if we were required to know all there is to know about building and repairing a car and all its parts in order to drive one. The car’s guts are encapsulated in a tidy package for we civilians such that we just need to know five things; turn on/off, shift gears, gas, brake, steer.
Another important characteristic of functions is for a specific input always return the exact same output. Machines would be impractical to use or even useless to us if they weren’t predictable. Imagine what it would be like if the amount we stepped on the gas pedal fed gas into the engine in a linear manner as usual, but sometimes exponentially, sometimes according to the angle of the sun at the time of day.
That would be a dangerous car to take on the road! I’d be forced to drive very slowly because I never know when the function of the gas pedal will change. Therefore, I can’t go on the freeway because I’m forced to drive slowly. Do you see how any unpredictability drastically makes like tougher?
If a function does the exact same thing for the exact same input, complexity and risk are mitigated … even though complexity and risk can never in practice be eliminated, but at least on paper. Our example of the gas pedal only offered three different outputs and already I wouldn’t drive such a car.
All of our machines, including software 1, are composed of functions. Machines are a composition of parts, where each part does it’s thing and only its thing. Functions made of functions made of functions … However, the functions composing most of our software today do not have the quality of firing out the same output for the same input.
Note that a very interesting class of functions are those so-called “Machine Learning” (ML) models discussed towards the beginning of this blog. These are the product of “data scientists”, functions for guessing things such as how many people in a given population are at risk for becoming diabetic. Input whether you’re obese, over 45, high blood pressure, etc, and it guesses if you’re at risk for becoming diabetic.
They are often incorrectly referred to as Artificial Intelligence. Those functions are just machines. As is typical for machines, they beat the hell out of human effort as long as the rules don’t change.
So imagine again what it would be like if the gas pedal on a car didn’t react the same way for an amount the pedal is pushed down. Perhaps there is a rhyme or reason for its erratic behavior. What else is going on around us when the gas pedal responds to our foot pressure as usual versus when otherwise? This is the purpose for thought, the 4th Aggregate.
The 4th Aggregate – Relationships (Thoughts)
When our collection of functions in the 3rd Aggregate encounters something it isn’t designed for, it throws an exception an error message. Or if it’s a tangible machine, it may “crash and burn”. Usually, human programmers are alerted to these exceptions. They find the cause, use their human intelligence to formulate a solution, and implement it (modify and re-compose the functions).
As discussed towards the end of the 3rd Aggregate, to find a solution for a problem, humans search through webs of relationships – associations we’ve learned over our life. In the field of A.I. and neurology, there is the saying, what fires together, wires together. These relationships include:
Correlation – These are events that occur together to some degree. The simultaneous occurrence may be coincidence, due to another factor, or does indeed imply some sort of cause and effect.
Perceived cause and effect 2 – This is anything where we believe one thing will follow another because it has happened a lot.
Intended cause and effect – These are cause and effect of our human-engineered machines. We intend for gas to explode in cylinders, driving a transmission, that ultimately spins wheels.
For software, such relationships have traditionally been programmed by people. These are procedural relationships. However, in this Big Data age, relationships are wrested from a large history of facts by statistical algorithms.
Thoughts, whether human or machine, are about wonder, “what-if”. The human or machine then investigates what if by playing around with the web of relationships in the heads or in a graph database.
For example, in these pre-A.I. days, the process for optimizing something like low sales goes like this:
A sales manager experiencing low sales (pain in the 2nd Aggregate) would wonder what to look for in a customer most likely to purchase a luxury car now. That way, the sales personnel can maximize their sales performance (a goal of the 5th Aggregate) by spending more time with such people.
A data scientist will then run years of sales history and customer demographics through some sort of “machine learning” algorithm. That sales history and demographics data could be thought of as “sensed” in the 1st Aggregate.
The output of the algorithm are relationships between various customer attributes – gender, education level, age, income level, etc. This set of relationships is then deployed into production as a function (3rd Aggregate) of the enterprise, no different from anything we know to do as a human.
As it is for a human, the 4th Aggregate is the web of relationships as well as the process of finding possible solutions to a pain detected in the 2nd Aggregate. It’s not really that hard to trace a line of relationships when the dots are all connected. What is hard is finding a solution that minimizes negative side-effects. What are negative side-effects? Those are goals and desires that are hampered, the 5th Aggregate.
The 5th Aggregate – Metrics (Consciousness)
Like human creatures, corporate enterprises have goals, missions, and feel “pain”. Some of these corporate goals keep us from breaking laws and there are goals towards growth and higher profits. Goals not doing well register as pain. Metrics (nodes) statuses tie to functions of the 3rd Aggregate – think of these as pain and joy receptors. The web of these goals dictates the “values” or character of the system.
Businesses are founded upon strategies. Strategies are a web of “cause and effect”, a theory that if we perform some action, there will be a chain of effects leading to the satisfaction of our goals. For example, in the 2nd Aggregate, I mentioned Revenue Growth as a key metric. However, Revenue Growth itself isn’t a good thing. We could increase revenue easily by slashing prices, increasing revenue, but lowering profit – and increasing volume, which increases expenses, which also lowers profit.
The illustration below shows a simple strategy map for a doctor’s office. If the practice adds a doctor, that leads to more billable hours, which contributes to higher utilization which leads to higher revenue, which contributes to higher profit.
The strategy map above illustrates the trade-offs taken for some action represented by the blue boxes. If it weren’t for the fact that more doctors cost more (in many more ways than just salary), we could simply add as many doctors as possible to make as much money as possible. But there’s always trade-offs.
The complex world in which the aCEO must thrive goes way beyond such simple trade-offs. There are cascading webs of cause and effect that make almost everything hard. For example, the task of something as universal as hiring is so complicated that every business has a specialized Human Resources department. Do candidates have a long list of required skill, required education, are they trustworthy, will they get along with everyone, will they be assertive when necessary, cooperative otherwise?
A more realistic strategy map would be a big unwieldy mess, impractical as a visualization for our human brain. Fortunately, handling such a web of relationships is something computers can do better than us!
Each item is an issue because it interferes with some goal or another. Such magical employees meeting all requirements are rare and so delicate trade-offs (compromises) are made that will hopefully make all goals reasonably “happy”.
Because things are always changing in a business ecosystem, the aCEO will always be “buzzing” like a human brain dealing with constant change. A consciousness isn’t some static picture, but an in-motion process. It’s a process that goes something like this:
Things in the world change (1st Aggregate) …
Which could result in pains (bad KPI statuses in the 2nd Aggregate) …
As well as invalid results from functions in the 3rd Aggregate …
Which results in goals in the 5th Aggregate trying to minimize pain, re-balance itself …
And the 5th Aggregate employs the web of cause and effect in the 4th Aggregate to find candidate solutions, and test them out.
Exploring for a set of measured trade-offs that will eventually satisfy all goals, a solution to a minimizing pain, is actually the relatively easy part. Much tougher is organizing the map of relationships in the 4th and 5th Aggregates, connecting the dots. “What” is usually an easier question to answer than “How”.
The biggest breakthrough in software will not be further improvements in accuracy, speed, and volumes of data processed with well-defined tasks. It will be the ability to re-program itself, self-organize the connected dots.
From a Buddhist perspective, software today is dukkha, incapable of adapting itself to constant change. Software today is mostly rather “hand-wired” organizations of functions – meticulously hand-coded by highly-skilled human programmers. And that’s starting to change.
1 It’s not exactly correct to say that software is composed of functions since what appear to be functions can return different results under since it depends upon circumstances outside its inputs and/or the functions often does not handle exceptions (inputs it wasn’t designed to take in) well enough. Those two inadequacies account for much of the reason software has so many bugs. There is a movement towards “functional programming” that enforces at least the first issue, towards the goal of writing software that is less complex.
2 Any time I utter the phrase “cause and effect”, someone reminds me that “correlation does not imply causation”. I don’t think anyone actually does think correlation implies causation. It doesn’t make sense to do something for an effect unless you believe there would be the desired effect. Whatever decisions that are made by people of sound mind are based upon what they perceiveto be cause and effect relationship.
Today is January 13, 2019, the 8th Day of the 12th moon for 2018 – Lunar Bodhi Day. The header above is painted in the Eternal Fishnu’s colors.
Here is a little post I hope helps you meditate on a very important aspect of Enlightenment on this Bodhi Day: What is the Five Aggregates?
The Whole is Greater than the Aggregation of its Parts
Here’s what the “The Five Aggregates” are if you’re taking an online practice test and just need a fast answer: In Buddhist literature, it’s a collection of things/concepts that comprise our sentience – body, feelings, perception, thoughts, and consciousness.
The Five Aggregates plays a big part in the core lesson of the Heart Sutra. The most succinct way to state the lesson is:
The Universe is One inseparable thing, so stop acting like it’s a bunch of independent pieces.
Roughly, the argument of that lesson can be broken down like this:
Everything is always changing …
So any thing we think we see is just a temporary assemblage of other things …
So none of the things we use our brains to recognize really exists anymore …
Which renders as invalid any cause and effect relationships that we’ve learned about between those things which no longer exists …
Therefore, it doesn’t make sense suffering through our relentless and eventually futile attempts to coerce the Universe to what our minds compute based on that outdated information …
Rather, turn it around and learn how to better read and respond to the Universe.
However, point #6 above doesn’t mean we humans should become completely thoughtless, spineless, gooey, creatures. As many say in Buddhism, “there is a middle way“.
But even if we can intellectually understand that lesson, at our human realm of sentience it’s really difficult as our actual experience is more like that of a goldfish in a bowl. We’re trapped in our little cubicle of space with a whole lot going on outside of those glass walls, as well as a whole lot more we cannot ever see.
Let’s start this journey with Ralph Waldo Emerson’s quote, “Man is a piece of the Universe made alive.”
In this post I will cover the Five Aggregates one at a time, but remember that the whole that’s made up of those five aggregates is our Sentience.
An “aggregate” is the product of an assemblage of parts. That product could be a homogeneous collection of customer service reps, a stack of one dollar bills, or inventory of some mass-produced commodity. For such a collection of things, each member is interchangeable. These are things we count and measure in volume, for example, 50 cartons of milk or one-thousand dollars.
More interestingly, an aggregate could be a heterogeneous collection of parts. For example, an automobile, a surgical team, a hamburger, the Earth’s environment, or the Beatles. Such assemblages of parts into a whole are very different things from simply a “bag o’ parts”. Think of the music from each of the Beatles members’ solo work. All are very different nor as good as the music they created as a band.
Therefore, we say that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. That’s not usually true for homogeneous aggregates where the whole is simply the sum of its parts – ten customer service reps is just ten customer service reps.
Each of the Five Aggregates is a heterogeneous aggregate. We’ll cover each shortly, but for now, let’s take the example of the 1st Aggregate, which includes our senses – sight, sound, taste, smell, touch. They are all very different kinds of information at our human level of existence. For example, the picture painted in our heads through the photons hitting our retinas are an aggregate of three kinds of rods (red, green, blue), a bunch of cones, the adjustable aperture of our pupils, etc.
As just mentioned above, our Sentience is an aggregate of the Five Aggregates. In fact, it doesn’t take much pondering to realize that practically everything we can think of is a hierarchical aggregate of aggregates – from the uber aggregate of the Universe itself, to the Earth’s ecosystem, to machines we design and build, to sub-atomic particles.
For example, a car is a hierarchical aggregation of aggregations. One of those parts of a car is the engine which is itself an aggregation of parts. One of those parts of the engine is the distributor, which is an aggregation of parts, …
We often call an aggregation “the Big Picture”. Do we see the forest or do we see the trees? It’s easy for us to lose sight of the big picture because we’re trained to specialize – break down the big picture into smaller pieces so each of us can become an expert in our assigned bite-sized piece. As specialized experts, we can optimize the hell out of each of those pieces, then assemble all the pieces back together into a theoretically better machine.
Overview of the Heart Sutra
This blog could be considered part of a set centered around the The Heart Sutra along with these three others:
If you haven’t read or don’t want to read those three blogs before continuing, the section below, Symbolic Thinking, sort of recaps the material covered in No Thing Exists and Everything Forms Every Thing. As for the notion of “The Other Shore”, think of it simply as the side of the Bay where the sun shines brighter and there’s a prettier view.
From Thich Nhat Hanh’s English translation of the Heart Sutra, The Five Aggregates are mentioned a couple of times such as in this excerpt:
That is why in Emptiness, Body, Feelings, Perceptions, Mental Formations and Consciousness are not separate self entities.
Deeper understanding of the Heart Sutra equates to peace of mind. The Heart Sutra is a succinct encapsulation of Buddhism which one can read within about two minutes, three tops. However, as “spot-on” as the Heart Sutra may be, what it encapsulates is ineffable without decades of experience mindfully soaking in its deepest wisdom.
For example, I know what Business Intelligence is – at least I hope I do, as that’s my job. But I can’t effectively pass on the full depth of that knowledge to someone, even through a big book. To fully understand that knowledge space, it takes years of pressure-filled work, exploration of thousands of dead ends (which usually comes in handy some time in the future), an endless succession of unknown unknowns, terrible mistakes incentivizing you to find betters ways, and the resourcefulness skill built from having the technological rug constantly pulled out from under you every other year.
Likewise, progress towards a full understanding of the Buddha’s teaching (enlightenment) goes well beyond reading the Heart Sutra over and over again or analyzing each word to death. Think of it more as a periodic test of your understanding gained through your direct life experience and guidance from those who offer advice from their own experience. Hopefully, this post and the other three I mentioned above is one of those sources of guidance.
Our capabilities provided through these Five Aggregates – senses, feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and consciousness – enable we flesh and blood creatures to “preserve” our form longer (live longer) in this indescribably dynamic reality in which we are manifested (Life on Earth). In our human case, “long enough” means to live long enough to mature enough to raise children. The Five Aggregates are our “smarts”, which enable us to some extent to outsmart the soul-less laws of physics – at least for a while.
If things didn’t change, we wouldn’t need senses, thoughts, consciousness. As Ringo said, “I think because things change.” We may recognize things such as our parents, our car, or our chair at work, but what we think we recognize is never exactly as it was before. “No man ever steps in the same river twice”, as Heraclitus observed. We could be seeing someone in disguise, they could be high on drugs, angry, therefore “different”.
Sentience for humans is centered around our awareness or ourselves being aware – self-awareness. That is, I’m aware of something I define as “myself”. My sentience involves my body, sensations about my body and other things out there, my primal emotion about what I’m sensing, my perceptions of what I’m sensing, my thoughts, and the ability to reflect upon those thoughts – the Five Aggregates.
We’re aware of our mortality, in fact, the mortality of other creatures as well. But that awareness is merely a by-product of the real value sentience afforded to us. That real value is that we can manipulate things in our environment. Our human forms are machines that can recognize things, form a map in our heads of how those things relate to each other, imagine what the rearrangement of these things will look like, and to a good extent mold the physical world to that vision.
Sentience isn’t a uniquely human thing. It’s a continuum onto which creatures of Earth fall at some point. Even an amoebae is an intricate assemblage of molecules resulting in the skill to conduct a species-perpetuating life; birth, eat, develop, evade being eaten, reproduce. There’s really no man-made machine as I write this that can do that with absolutely no human intervention.
Sentience isn’t just “thinking”. Most if not all animals can “think” to some extent. We humans are just much better at it than other animals. It also depends on how one defines “think”. For the purposes of this blog, “think” means that when presented with a decision to make, you’re capable of coming up with a novel answer that’s more effective than what you’d get plugging numbers into some rote formula.
And, although we humans are “sentient”, our sentience isn’t the epitome of sentience. Perhaps we’re at the top of one kind of sentience. But as our human brand of sentience may stand at the very top of a hill, there are other types of sentience throughout the Universe on peaks much higher than ours.
The Eternal Fishnu tells me that symbolic thinking is what the story of Adam and Eve is about. Adam and Eve were at first one with the Universe, until they made a choice to exercise their own will by going against God’s instructions not to eat the apple. The ability to exercise their own will is founded in symbolic thinking.
We are trained from the instant we’re born to recognize things – usually starting with Mama, Dada, then on to various toys, foods, etc. We’re taught the alphabet, a set of symbols, before we’re taught to recognize words (a symbol for a thing) before we’re taught to read a book (a symbol for a story).
The coffee mug sitting on my desk as I type is a thing. If I drop it on my foot, will I not feel pain? If I bonked my teeth with it, will I not require a trip to the dentist? The mug is a thing in the context of the “normal world”, that realm where you need to go to work to pay the bills and have no time to ponder enlightenment.
However, in the realm of your Dukkha, enlightenment, the Heart Sutra, and Buddhism, a “thing” is a symbol in your brain representing something we’ve sensed. Those things and the relationships between them form a “soft” model of the Universe from which we make all of our decisions.
Those things in our brains are organized into a map of relationships we’ve observed between those things, we’re able to perform experiments in our brain before taking physically irreversible actions. However, none of those symbols in your head, any of those “things”, really exist anymore – in the Buddhist context.
Those experiments we run in our head are the secret sauce to humanity’s ability to manipulate our world … as well as the source of our Dukkha. We take the continuous, fully inter-dependent processes and break them down into discrete things and discrete steps. If we think of any machine we humans have made, such as a watch (the mechanical sort), we can see all of the interacting gears, springs, and dial hands. We can understand how the cascading cause and effect from spring to gear, to gear, to dial works.
The Five Aggregates
The Five Aggregates comprises the high-level architecture of our human sentience – all that we feel and think, the foundation of decisions we make. In the context of the Heart Sutra, the Five Aggregates are discussed to methodically lay out the wisdom that all we think about is based on what is usually a highly flawed reading and interpretation of what’s really out there.
There are two over-arching points to keep in mind as you read through this section on The Five Aggregates. The first, as just mentioned, is that our reading and perception of what is around us is very prone to mistakes. Our symbolic thinking breaks down the oneness of the Universe into discrete things and discrete steps. That way, we can move around the pieces on the game board in our minds to predict what will happen. Thinking that this is an adequate model of the real thing is like thinking we can butcher a cow, reassemble the steaks, soup bones, organs and hide, and it will again be a live cow.
It’s all about building, utilizing, and maintaining a model of the Universe encoded in our neurons. However, this model is never nearly as good as the real thing, the Universe. In fact it’s pitifully inadequate.
Second, we really don’t have much control over anything going on around us, even though we want to think we do. We have some control over what is “close” to us. That is, what is physically nearby, not far off in the future, or what we have strong ties to, such as our possessions, our responsibilities at work, our close friends and family, etc. But that level of control, already not very well-founded, rapidly diminishes the farther out in time and space we go.
More interestingly, we don’t even have as much control over our own selves as we want to think. We have little control over how we feel about an event, what we think about it, and often what we decide to do about it. We don’t have much control over rather hard-wired instincts. What we often think of as our ability to control ourselves is our ability to suppress our expression of negative feelings that will get us into trouble. That’s not the same as genuinely expunging a negative feeling out of our mind.
Therefore, the point of this blog is to convince you of the futility of your desire to control things. Then you can settle into the world, at peace.
The 1st Aggregate – Body and Form
The Body and Form Aggregate is an aggregation of all that there is outside of ourselves and our sensory organs to detect what is out there. Those sensory organs sensing – sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch – are the windows into our brain.
But practically everything we sense is flawed. Or at least information we sense will quickly become obsolete because everything is always changing. Right out of the gate, our sentience is prone towards huge opportunities for misinterpretation of the world.
At this point, it’s easy to think of the phrase, garbage in, garbage out. However, that’s not quite right. Our eyes see real photons. Our ears pick up real sound waves. Our noses and tongues detect real molecules. There’s no “garbage” being sensed – those photons, sound waves and molecules are right here, right now. Where there is garbage is in your brain where there are conclusions you come to founded upon outdated and limited information.
Imperfect Information and Information Overload
The philosopher, Bishop George Berkeley’s, “koan” of the tree falling in the forest (and no one was there to hear it, does it make a sound?) fantastically reminds us that although we don’t hear or see everything, that doesn’t mean it’s not there. What we sense with our senses is such a small part of the whole story that there’s an inherent degree of speculation to everything. There is so much going on in the Universe that it’s impossible for our brains to sense everything.
Just about all information we process in our brains is based on imperfect information – we don’t and can’t know everything. But none the less, we still must make our decisions based on what little we really know – the real world won’t stop to give us all the time we need to make a decision.
Although it’s easy to accept that we don’t and can’t know everything, it may be even tougher to accept that we shouldn’t know too much. Even if our brains were much larger, capable of sensing much more than it currently can, that information still needs to be processed. “Process” means connect the dots about what all is happening and make decisions fast enough to matter. This point is very loosely analogous to having 80 billion neurons in our head, but that the real information is in the quadrillion connections between them, connecting those neuron “dots”.
Sensing more information than our brain can effectively process is information overload. Imagine your eight bosses in a room overwhelming you with all they need and all the reasons why. Your brain will be so scattered that you wouldn’t be able to help even one of them as well as you can. That’s a minor illustration of information overload.
Nature worked out the problem of the immense volume of information in several ways. One is the natural tuning of our senses, limiting them towards the goal of optimized fitness for competing in the game of Life on Earth. Everything we’re geared to notice is a lean and mean package of sense capability, honed through thousands of generations of competition – light, sound, smell. All so the better to notice our predators or our prey smartly and quickly enough to matter – day or night, hot or cold, in the forest or on the savanna.
Pretty cool, huh? But it comes with the price of the atrophy of whatever doesn’t matter mostof the time. Our eyes have cells (rods) that detect red, blue, and green, but not yellow. Yellow rods would be redundant because we can also detect yellow as a combination of red and green. So if we hypothetically used to have yellow rods, if a human were to be born without them, it wouldn’t matter since there is a workaround. In fact it would positively affect that unfortunate yellow-rod-less human, as there’s room for more red, green, and blue rods.
Similarly, we don’t have receptors up our nose for every chemical – which means those left out chemicals have no smell, and so as far as our brain is concerned, it doesn’t exist. It can seem detrimental that we can’t smell everything, but if we could, that would again overload us with information. Now, if we really needed to smell more things, we could have evolved long snouts like dogs to expand the number of olfactory receptors.
So we don’t see, hear, smell, or taste everything – just what happens to have been the bag o’ powers most beneficial for our ancestors at the time and place of their lives, going back tens of thousands of generations. We’ve naturally evolved the bag o’ powers that recognizes the most important things – even though every now and then that trade-off of a wider breath of powers towards the goal of mitigating information overload fails us. But it works well enough for enough of us to mature enough to raise enough children. The heuristic of evolution is a “good enough”, not necessarily the “best”.
Further, much of what we sense undergoes a lot of massaging before it hits our thinking brain, like highlighting a picture for better presentation. For example, our eyes take in our three dimensional world on our two-dimensional retinas and uses algorithms in our brain to simulate three-dimensions. It even creates the illusion that we’re seeing a big view of what is in front of our eyes, even though only a small percentage of it is in focus at any instant.
Predator and Prey
If Life on Earth were a board game, it would be named “Predator and Prey”.
Our senses are mostly geared to sense change – i.e. the activity of our predators or our prey. Change is a good word in Buddhism, right? Ironically, at our human scale of existence, time frames of seconds and at the scale of creatures we would normally consider predators and prey, you often will not notice change – you won’t see your predators or prey move. Why? Because a primary tactic is to stay really still and/or pretend you’re something else so your predators walk right passed you and your prey walks closer.
At our “normal” scale of existence things may seem unchanged, but that doesn’t mean things are not changing. Although we may be aware of how things work at smaller or larger scales, we live at the scale of human existence. Are we usually cognizant of the billions of bacteria on our skin? Or the electron buzzing in the atoms? Even at the scale of an insect, “normal” is different. Insects can carry balls of water as big as them.
The bottom line is that our senses don’t see everything, and that’s by design. The net of what nature evolved in humans to sense and ignore, at the end of the day, results in nothing less than our position as the apex animal of Earth.
The Sixth Sense
Guess what? We are psychic. Not like Miss Cleo, but we do have the ability to read the minds of other people. We have empathy because we need the ability to read other minds – predict what is in their heads, so that we can effectively work with them or not be fooled by them. This is another sense along with smell, sight, hearing. Big parts of our brain are dedicated towards recognizing very subtle things in faces, such as the minutest of eye twitch or smile. Without a word or a sound, we’ re pretty good at telling if someone didn’t like something we said, if they are happy, angry, we’re still on the same page, maybe even lying to us.
It’s not “psychic” as in fortune tellers, seeing into your future. There’s nothing magic, it is mind-reading, an innate skill developed in our human brains out of necessity we call Theory of Mind. It’s just reading body language, which we all have as a natural gift and can improve with training.
We wouldn’t be able to communicate anything more than the simplest of information if we weren’t able to read peoples’ minds to some extent. That “unspoken” communication in peoples’ expressions and body language sets swaths of context.
It would be too cumbersome to craft completely unambiguous messages to be of practical use while we’re working together. It’s very valuable for to me just see the look of fear or anger in your face and know I’d better run now and ask questions later. No need for you to write an essay first.
But of course, we’re still often wrong about what we sense people are thinking. We may see someone is angry or in a receptive mood, but incorrectly guess why, which can lead to wrong conclusions.
Further, they could be great actors faking a behavior. Lying is something every animal is capable of. For lower animals, it’s called camouflage – prey hiding from predators and predators hiding from prey to ambush them. We humans are just able to take lying to another level.
The 2nd Aggregate – Feelings
Think of feelings as our most primitive and simple of thoughts. For example, when we were simple one-celled creatures swimming around a billion years ago, we felt water too hot or too cold and moved away from it. These are the sorts of mechanisms that are simple enough that we can imagine them evolving without some sort of “intelligent design”. I’ve described these simple “thoughts” in a series of blogs starting with The Root of Dukkha – Part 1 – Envy.
The Buddha mentions that feelings can be pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral. In our human logic, we tend to seek pleasant feelings and avoid unpleasant feelings. However, the actions of seeking and avoiding are the cause of stress. That’s because in our human realm of existence, which is little more complex than that of an amoeba, seeking pleasure and avoiding pain isn’t as easy as binary choices of yes/no, up/down, or fight/flee.
The only widely effective solution in a complex world is to be like the Zen master, Hakuin, 100% accepting of what Is. Or, at the very least, learn to be happy with what you have, and know things can always be worse – believe me, it’s very true. I know that’s boring, cliched advice, but it is a necessary start that does lead to 100% acceptance like that of Hakuin.
This doesn’t mean we ignore our feelings. But we have no control over them, so ignoring them is too a kind of avoidance. Besides, our feelings are often wise advisers nature honed for us over countless generations. We keep faith and patience that they will pass through us knowing they are temporary.
However, although the ability to take comfort in knowing everything is temporary is a vast improvement, it really means you still don’t get it. It means you’re still judging things as good and bad as opposed to seeing the Universe as One, where all the wonders out there are due to opposing Yin and Yang forces.
The 3rd Aggregate – Perception
The 3rd Aggregate is the aggregate of the things we “know”, things we’ve learned, which we use to assess what’s happening now or could happen later. That knowledge is applied to information we’re sensing from the 1st Aggregate, our senses. We smell turkey roasting, we see people we know coming over to our house, and we assess that the Thanksgiving festivities are at hand. This is what’s happening now, right around us.
The 2nd and 3rd Aggregate differ in that the former is an aggregate of fairly hard-wired instincts, whereas the latter is more like software, the things we’ve learned and can modify as we learn more and our environment changes. Both are similar in that they process what we’re sensing and outputs actions we should take.
However, the problem is the world is constantly changing, as described in the 1st Aggregate. We sense only a very small fraction of what is going on, and it’s filled with deception due to the game of predator and prey. But we do need to make decisions before life makes a decision for us. We can’t all just sit still doing nothing. So we settle on something that seems plausible enough.
That means our brains often make mistakes.
I don’t mean to sound so negative. It only sounds terrible to humans because we’re aware of our mortality. Remember, we are spawned from a world where pretty much every creature makes a living devouring another creature. That’s how Life on Earth works, that’s why Life on Earth is over three billion years old, immortal for all practical purposes.
Note too that our perceptions of things dictates what we focus on. So going back to the 1st Aggregate of body/form, we direct our senses to focus on certain things, ignoring everything else. That’s how magicians fool us and fish get hooked. But we’re better than that. Aren’t we? Yes, we can think … we can reason.
The 4th Aggregate – Thoughts
Imagine having the intelligence of a fish. For that level of intelligence, if it looks like a worm, smells like a worm, and moves like a worm, it’s a worm. Or is the lure of a clever human fisherman?
It’s here in the 4th Aggregate (and the 5th Aggregate) where humans are much more developed than fish, reptiles, and plants. Thoughts and Consciousness are the keys for our highly adaptable skill. We’re harder to fool by our non-human predators or prey, we can manipulate our environment towards something we envision, and we can learn new skills.
Thoughts are what takes our minds to the past so we can better predict the future. But it comes with the cost of diluting our attention towards what’s happening right now. If what’s happening right now is that Thanksgiving festivities are underway, we may have thoughts of eventual family bickering based on past experience, regrets of weeks of dieting being wiped out, the mess that must be cleaned up.
It’s our unparalleled prowess in the 4th Aggregate, thoughts, which separates us from the other animals. By “unparalleled”, I mean that to be fair to other animals, our thought capability isn’t exactly exclusive to humans, since most have some level of thought capability. We’re just alone on the far end of the spectrum, an outlier of intelligence on Earth.
The 4th Aggregate is our “smarts”. It causes us to question what the 3rd Aggregate recognizes. It causes us to be on guard because we’re aware of the risk of something bad happening. It motivates us to action based towards what we predict to be something good. It develops novel solutions where the 3rd aggregate fails to find a fit tactic to employ.
It’s not quite as easy to say that perceptions are a picture of what we’re seeing now versus thoughts are what we make of it, what else could be going on, and what we should do about it. Thoughts and perceptions go back and forth, with thoughts coloring, distorting what we’re perceiving. There are dozens of types of biases applied to what we are perceiving.
We don’t record our memories as we would film. We reconstruct much of what we try to recall, and it’s always at risk for being pulled together in a slightly different way.
Thoughts come into play in perception when what we’re seeing doesn’t make sense. Thoughts direct us to look for something else that play provide a clue or something that may prove a hypothesis.
Thoughts possibly can be massively parallel, responding to stimuli, but putting two and two together, trying to recognize something not quite right.
Thoughts predict the future by projecting from the past. Perceptions and Thoughts are logical computations. They aren’t always right. Sometimes events are recalled, assembled, and are a little off. Occasional Error is a critical component of genes and memes.
The 5th Aggregate – Consciousness
I don’t know what consciousness is. There are good ideas out there, but all leaving gaping, unsatisfying holes. Understanding of consciousness is a nut really smart people have been trying to crack for thousands of years. For now, let’s go with re-purposing U.S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart’s famous phrase on pornography, “I don’t know what consciousness is, but I know it when I see it.”
Materially, consciousness is the aggregation of all our goals and desires. These include our responses to our primal emotions (2nd Aggregate), addictions, hopes and dreams, habits, and even our sacred beliefs. They are encoded in a yet undecipherable code distributed all over the web of neurons and synapses of our brain. But that’s not our consciousness any more than being a human means having human DNA.
That material description of consciousness is as dead as a photo of a Giant Sequoia or Bryce Canyon versus being there in person – with walking around it, smelling the smells, sharing moments of awe with fellow visitors, the tactile feel of the heights of the tree and walls. Even a video or art by the best artists ever falls short of fully capturing the conscious experience.
There is a big hint in the paragraph above. When we’re really there at Sequoia National Forest and Bryce Canyon, our senses are fully engaged, dynamically reacting to incomparably richer information than we could get from a photo or video. But “richer information” doesn’t mean higher resolution of what we’re seeing (5 megapixels vs 20 megapixels), or simply adding smell and touch to the experience.
The richer data stimulates more things in our head, and they are all connected in that web of neurons, synapses, and all the other stuff (fluids, neurotransmitters, “glial cells”) crammed into our skull. All our goals and desires compete with each other. For example, our addiction to junk food versus our desire to be healthy versus our limited time to shop for healthy food versus the convenience of junk food.
Our consciousness is made up of this tangled web of competing goals and desires. But consciousness is the dynamic process of trying to make all our goals and desires happy. Consciousness is a verb.
The Aggregate of the Five Aggregates is Us
So how does this knowledge of the Five Aggregates help us to be at peace? We see from much of the discussion above that the Five Aggregates are highly integrated. That means changes to one of the Aggregates affects them all.
We can conclude a few actionable items that will help us:
The fewer goals and desires that we have, the easier it is to make all of them happy, and so the less “turmoil” it makes for your brain.
What we think we sense and what we make of it is most likely incorrect to varying degrees. Therefore, we’re better off not clinging to what our experience tells us about what we’re sensing. Always have an open mind.
We have little control over the Universe and that our mostly futile attempts to control it is the source of our own suffering.
Our minds are not something we can see in a static blueprint. Our minds are a dynamic process as it is for the entire Universe. But we spend the bulk of our energy trying to stop the world, rather than using our sentience just to provide an occasional nudge to something caught in an endless loop.
See You on the Other Shore
There is a big trade-off taken for our prowess thoughts, the 4th Aggregate. Caught in the storm of the turmoil of thoughts, we suffer because we’re mercilessly sloshed around by years of our hoarded crap trying to predict uncountable possible outcomes.
If we didn’t have thoughts, we could be as content as the other animals just being what they are – perfect cows, perfect ants, perfect fish, perfect trees – unhindered by what has happened and what could happened. Cows, ants, fish, and trees perceive and react. With our advanced level for thought, life isn’t nearly that simple.
Zen and Buddhism are the skills we utilize on board our boat (our mind and body) to the other shore, just as we would utilize sailing skills on a literal boat. That journey starts from the shore of content animals perceiving and reacting, One with the Universe – to the other Shore, where surprisingly, we’re also One with the Universe! So what’s the point of getting to the other shore?! In between is a journey across a treacherous ocean where we’re at an Ugly Stage, half-way between the shores.
On the treacherous ocean we suffer. We’re aware of our mortality. We’re cut off from the “solid” ground from which we emerged and and all it offers. It’s a journey all humans are on because our elders pulled us onto the boat. They intend to take us to a better place, but the vast majority don’t make it all the way to that other shore. Caught in the middle of the ocean, caught between animal and fully awaken sentience, they suffer until the end.
Our ability to think didn’t develop in us for the lofty human goals and desires we strive for. It developed to better protect ourselves from lions and tigers and bears, as well as to better hunt rabbits and seals and deer. But it swept us off the safe shore of just being another animal to another shore.
What awaits us at the other shore? Well, almost magically, we’ll have our cake and you can eat it too! That is, we’ll be sentient creatures capable of design and manipulation, without all the suffering we experience due to clinging. If we see that everything is connected, we’re all one, not fragmented, we don’t cling to the past, we don’t cling to beliefs, we’ll be a force of the Universe. We’ll again we One with the Universe, without our Dukkha and the effects of our Dukkha on everything around us.
The Eternal Fishnu is not just that blue, rubbery, fish-like figure with a yellow cap and a red backpack. The blue rubber figure is just an Earthly manifestation, an icon, of The Eternal Fishnu for my Earthly, visually-oriented and symbolically-thinking brain.
The actual Eternal Fishnu is a phenomenon of the Universe like gravity and time, an ethereal phenomenon gracefully nudging us from the friction-filled bumpy ride of dukkha to the smooth sailing of Buddhahood. He is a phenomenon similar to the gentle agitation over time on a chaotic bucket of mud, settling it into orderly layers of gold at the bottom and progressively lighter things moving towards the top. The teachings of Fishnu gently agitate our brains to re-wire, smoothing out our arduous transition from animal to intelligent designers.
A Human’s Bodhi
On the other hand, as Ringo put it, I’m a buddha trapped in a man’s Bodhi. I’m not an ethereal phenomenon as is Fishnu. Meaning, although I’m awake, seeing through the illusions computed by my mind by cultivating a perpetual beginner’s mind and 100% acceptance of what Is, my sentience at least for now is intimately intertwined in a human animal. My Bodhi still lives the life of a man of today with joys and the challenges that are just part of being a member of society and to a wider extent, a creature of Earth.
What is a “man’s Bodhi”? Or rather, a “human’s Bodhi”? It is waking up to the reality of what is out there, as opposed to living the life of the compelling delusions of our brain – that pitifully inadequate model of the Universe we rely on to figure out what’s out there. Our brain allows us to outsmart physics by enabling us to imagine outcomes, all in the safety of our heads, before committing to real, physically-irreversible actions.
Imagination is playing with the model of the Universe we’ve built in our heads, those symbols, things, and how they relate to each other in a big web of cause and effect. But there is much disconnect between the model of the Universe we’ve built in our brains and the actual Universe. That model in our heads is outdated because:
Everything is always changing. Impermanence means our database of information in our brains must constantly be updated. Is it? Can it?
We don’t know everything – we haven’t experienced much and the Universe, well, it’s a big place. The reasoning behind the reincarnation thing is that it would take thousands of lifetimes, from thousands of roles, to fully experience everything.
Our brains do not require actual energy to imagine something like tipping over a car. We don’t know exactly how much energy it takes to move a boulder until we actually do it. But we can imagine some approximation that’s probably not exactly right. It’s what I call “cartoon physics”.
We’ve heard it said that there are many paths to enlightenment. In fact, we can almost say that it’s a given that everyone’s path will be different because everyone’s brain is wired differently. In addition, though, there are also many paths to sentience. Human sentience is just one kind of sentience. So different kinds of sentience requires a different Dharma – the teachings of a Buddha.
However, whatever our kind of sentience, human, Klingon, or plant, the destination is the same. That destination is a fully in-sync connection to the Universe. For humans, we suffer because we chose to believe the illusion of our brains that we are independent of the One Universe.
The circumstances from which all of life on Earth evolved over these last three billion years, involving interactions between countless creatures and physical conditions, lead to our brand of sentience for which Siddhartha Gautama’s Four Noble Truths make sense. Siddhartha Gautama is the Teacher of humanity during our “era”.
If we were to create an artificial intelligence and it clunked along with a kind of dukkha of its own, repairing that dukkha probably wouldn’t be carried out by teaching it the Four Noble Truths. It will require the “dharma” of the programming prowess of the developers of the A.I. (Coincidentally, as I took a little break during this writing, I see a friend on Facebook posted a meme; a baby’s face with the caption, “I refuse to take a nap … Is that resisting a rest?”)
The Era of Fishnu Buddha
Actually, The Eternal Fishnu is crashing Siddhartha Gautama’s party. The Eternal Fishnu’s “party” was roughly what we call the Devonian period, about 400-300 million years ago, when to put it simply, “fish” moved onto land. Why? There really wasn’t any “reason”, there aren’t “reasons” where evolution is concerned. But that vertebrate architecture of those fishes, that pliable exterior over a sturdy frame, lead to whole classes of new creatures, the tetrapods, which includes us.
Those new classes of creatures were only possible outside the friction and buoyancy of water to the lighter friction of air and the stability of ground. The new set of problems the tetrapods faced would force new innovations in creature design.
Were the fish sentient? Probably not as we humans experience sentience – nothing like the anthropomorphized version of fishes where Ariel, Sebastian, and Flounder lived, under the sea. But fish are life, where every molecule is intricately placed. All life has an intelligence of its own. It must. It filled this planet with wonders for three billion years! That intelligence probably wouldn’t get much out of the Four Noble Truths.
What was the dukkha of those fishes for which Fishnu appeared? Well … being a fish out of water for one. Why did those first fish that popped their heads out of the water continue to venture more and more out of its protection? Maybe they found a concentration of food at the shores, like scum accumulates at the sides of a bathtub. Maybe then the tide would go out leaving a bunch stranded there. Maybe most dried up, but some were sweatier or had thicker skin and were able to survive the low tide exposing them.
From our human perspective, it’s hard to understand why there would need to be a Buddha for fish. Again, Evolution never has a “plan”; there was never a plan for vertebrate fish to venture onto land. But once the process got under way, a Buddha helped them through that ugly stage of the process to the other shore. Looking towards the future, Maitreya, the Buddha of the future will only appear when the Four Noble Truths no longer makes any sense.
The Life of a Buddha Trapped in a Human’s Bodhi
So far, the writing on this blog site mostly speaks to the first two of the three Zen Stories that comprise the foundation of The Eternal Fishnu’s teaching: the beginner’s mind (The Empty Cup) and 100% acceptance of what is (Is that so?). However, I haven’t written as much about the third story, Picking Up the Bag.
The first two stories are about awakening to your Buddhahood and the third is on staying awake. One can’t fully appreciate the third story without fully digesting the first two. In a nutshell, the story of picking up the bag is that of an enlightened person demonstrating that enlightenment comes by simply dropping your burdens … just like that … and what comes after is picking it back up and continuing along your way.
So what’s the point? What changed? He’s still some schmuck carrying around a heavy bag. Well, nothing changed, but everything changed. When you realize your brain is a lousy model of what is really out there and you stop relying on it, you are now free to merrily, merrily, merrily go about your business as a member of society and creature of Earth – like in the nursery rhyme. Except it’s not life that is “but the dream”. Life is very real. It’s those beliefs of your brain where dreams lie – whether the dreams we have when asleep or the dreams we have wide awake.
Let’s look at a more pragmatic example from “normal” life where you drop your burdens, then pick them back up. Say that at work you know vast improvements must be made to a critical process; say this is an overhaul of an ETL system so severely scarred with years of hacky patches (a very common scenario) that it breaks every day. And it’s getting worse, to the point where some day you may not be able to fix it quickly.
But your plate is already overflowing with work for which you are directly accountable. Even if you did somehow muster the energy to tackle those improvements along with your “real” work, you’re afraid of stepping on the toes of others. You may be rocking the boat for folks not wanting the boat rocked with a few years to retirement.
Many will be under the delusion that nothing is wrong, that you’re a paranoid Chicken Little. Very often, if something hasn’t yet happened, people often think it couldn’t happen. From their perspective, nothing is wrong because, because they don’t see your heroics, your 60 hour weeks patching the dam all over the place. From their perspective, if it ain’t broke, why fix it?
(Before continuing, I do want to note that worrying about some awful future seems to contradict being in the now – we’re not supposed to worry about things that haven’t happened and may not even happen. The advice is more so to not let that future which may not happen complicate our efforts and drain our energy now.)
In any case it has to be done and you’ve decided you’re going to pursue it, taking all the hits, tripping over yourself and others with hesitations. As it is with treating cancer, the company really has no choice but to put everything on hold and take its metaphorical chemo or radiation therapy.
What if, however, the CEO fully comprehends the gravity of the situation and is brave enough to act on it? The CEO is willing to put her neck on the line against the whiny shareholders and gives you carte blanche to do whatever you need to do, providing funding, protecting you from retaliation. With or without the CEO’s permission, you’re going to do it, but you’re now 100% free with the CEO’s permission. At that moment, not next week or tomorrow, you become that mission.
So what changed? The CEO gave you permission to do what you must. But that’s the human, corporate life. Real life is much better. The Universe doesn’t need to give you permission to live like a Buddha in this life because it never said you had to live with dukkha in the first place. It’s our choice to cling to or be defined by the past, be terrified by imagined futures, and wait for good luck to save us.
For life in general, you’re Free! You need not fear anyone, any embarrassment, and pain. Drop your burden … just do it. No leashes, no buttons to push. Empty your mind of all that crap you’ve been hoarding, and accept what Is around you, right here, right now.
That bag we drop then pick back up holds the three billion year history of Life on Earth, every single event. It’s inseparable from our bodies, the vehicle in which we travel this world, more inseparable than any other organ. But it’s not a burden, no more than your car is a burden to you on the freeway. The burden our insistence on relying solely on our imperfect brain.
Feel the freedom. Then pick it up and embrace life like a person with nothing to lose and nothing to gain! This is what is meant by, “When you become nothing, you become Everything.” When you have no constraints, you are all things. Like a sub-atomic particle no longer observed, it goes from a single point to a field.
You are still a human animal, but you can now continue along your way with the genuine fearlessness you were born with.
A Full Life
Do you remember this scene from Groundhog Day?
Phil: What would you do if you were stuck in one place, and every day was exactly the same, and nothing that you did mattered?
One of the guys at the bar: That sums it up for me.
We watch the movie, “Groundhog Day”, and think it novel to relive the same day over and over. But with the mindless way most of us lives our lives, is it different from “Groundhog Day”? Our days go by like a blur because we’re hardly fully present. It’s like driving down a boulevard past countless strip malls. Unless we get out and spend time at each, they all look exactly the same from a inside a car at 40 mph. We see our days from a high level of I went to work, did stuff, came home, had dinner, went to bed.
Either your mind can give in to the Universe and let it take it on its wonderful ride in this amusement park called Earth, or you can be codependent on the Universe, being happy only when and if it decides to appease you.
My Teacher’s Enlightenment
Lastly, this blog is dedicated to the one-year anniversary of the Enlightenment of His Holiness, the Rubber Ducky Buddha of Joliet, on this date last year, November 3, 2017.
From The Rubber Ducky Buddha of Joliet today (my translation from His native “Mack mack mack …”):
“Humans are designers. That’s the human shtick. You only get to use that shtick to design your way out of problems. It’s those problematic times when humans can be humans, as I can be a duck when in water.”
The Rubber Ducky Buddha of Joliet thinks I need to dig deeper into Dukkha itself.
The Prism of Suffering
In the Western world, Dukkha is typically translated as “suffering”. That typical translation is drawn from Siddhartha Gautama’s succinct and seminal realization under the Bodhi Tree that “clinging is the cause of all suffering”. To me, simply using a Pali or Sanskrit word for “suffering” is an inadequate icon for such a rich tradition as Buddhism. Dukkha must mean more than suffering.
According to Wikipedia, long before Siddhartha Gautama’s life on Earth, dukkha meant an off-center axle hole in a cart wheel, a bad (dus) space (kha). However, it’s not entirely clear to me from that Wikipedia article whether Dukkha refers to the off-center axle hole or the resultant uncomfortable ride on a cart with such a wheel. So is Dukkha in Buddhist terms referring to clinging – the cause of suffering, or suffering – the effect of a misaligned wheel?
Whatever the case, in the tradition of The Eternal Fishnu, Dukkha refers to the cause of the suffering. Why does Fishnu teach that Dukkha means the cause rather than the effect? “Suffering” isn’t the only word translators attempt to assign to the word Dukkha. They’ve tried practically every uncomfortable emotion there is. The notes of that Wikipedia page list among others, pain, stress, unsatisfactoriness, sorrow, anguish, misery, unhappiness, affliction …
That’s just much too complicated. A simpler way is to see that there is one cause to those many effects. As white light that passes through a prism comes out in that rainbow of colors, a single cause results in that array of manifestations of suffering. That one cause is the pitifully inadequate model of the Universe we call our brains. All those manifestations of suffering is the result of the inability of our brain to keep up with what Is now. That inability is due to the impermanence of the world, relentless change.
Change Management … HAHAHAHA!
Everything is constantly changing. Even if our eyes, ears, nose, and skin do not detect any changes, there are still countless chemical reactions happening in our bodies and everywhere, all sorts of things are going on in the homes next door, in the next town, across the ocean, and the Earth and other planets are still spinning around the Sun. Our mere 80 billion neurons and quadrillion synapses can’t possibly keep up with all of that change.
Our brains are models of the world that starts to organize from conception. We experience things through our senses, eventually recognizing things, and our brain organizes those things into a webby knowledge base of cause and effect, relationships between those things encoded with neurons and synapses. For example, if I cry, I’ll get attention. Unfortunately, at some point the rules change and that doesn’t work anymore.
Others contribute to that model by teaching us things they’ve learned about the world. Which means we save lots of our precious little time on Earth not needing to reinvent everything. We can pick up where others left off. However, this can be bad if what we’re taught doesn’t apply anymore because the world has changed.
But we still teach it because that’s the way it’s always been done. Whatever we teach others, of course we believe it to be true. At least we paint a picture that makes it look true. And so we all train each other with the same reality, whether it’s true or not.
Perpetual Beginner’s Mind
When we learn a new skill, we need to model the rules of that skill in our brains. The skill is composed of things involved with it and the relationships between those things. In our brains, it’s all synapses, wiring up of neurons – that web of cause and effect.
It takes time to fully master a skill. We start by learning the fundamentals of the skill. If we’re lucky we can relate those fundamentals to things we already know. For example, video game players are well primed to be drone pilots. If our brains happen to be primed with such prerequisites, we initially progress quickly and are called “naturals”.
If we initially progress so quickly, we may think, “this ain’t so hard”, and jump to the conclusion that we know everything. With our “green belt” skill, we will be able to dazzle almost everyone with our new-found talent. That is, except for the true masters with decades of experience under their belts. Those who have that last 10% which takes years to learn through real life experience, where rubber hits the road. That last 10% requires us, which is our pitifully inadequate model of the Universe, to rub right up to the real Universe – let the Universe polish us up.
Whether we struggle at first because we are not naturals or we later get slapped down by a “black belt”, we will either persevere or give up – both of which can be filled with suffering. In either case, not having yet crossed the finish line, we are in a state where our skill is half-baked, at an ugly stage. Not all the connections are there, or if they are, they are loose.
We will be awkward, there will not be an apparent light at the end of the tunnel. But if we persevere, at some unknown time those final few connections are made and the skill gels, it becomes “second nature”. We can execute it with not much thought, almost effortless, we make it look easy.
The problem is that things are always changing. If not changing in the world of that hard-earned skill, then in some other facet of our lives as humans. So we always need to update some skill or another and even learn completely new skills. Or conversely, we can instead hold our ground and try to make the world stay where it is – and that, my friends, is Dukkha.
The Gift of Sentience
How frustrating would it be if we played poker for money every night, but the rules changed every day at any old time? How would we become masterful at poker if it keeps on changing? The gap between the average and the best becomes narrower, so no one has enough of an edge over the vast majority to make a living at it.
And it wouldn’t be just the last rule change we’d need to be cognizant of. There may be rules that survived for decades that just changed a few days ago and we’re still overcoming that lifelong habit. We can’t escape change. Most individual creatures can’t … but the species does, through the process of evolution.
Human sentience, though, despite the price of suffering because we’re self-aware, gives us the power to learn to be anything we want or need to be at any place and time. That is unlike all other animals that can only be what their genes dictate they will be. We humans are soft-coded creatures.
Sentience is the gift to change with the change around us. And that means our brains will always be filled with half-baked, ugly stage skill. When we accept the beauty of our sentience and fully accept the half-baked stuff, we will be Dukkha-free. How do we do that? Live The Buddha’s teaching in the Four Noble Truths, and the Eight-fold path. And explore the roots of our human nature.
See that we were always Buddha, always part of everything, and that it was just the model we call our brains that thought otherwise. It’s as enlightening as it was for astronomers when Copernicus realized the Sun does not revolve around the Earth, but the other way around.
Astronomers tried all sorts of convoluted schemes to force things to add up with the Earth at the center. But it just kept covering up one mess with another. Similarly, we suffer convoluted lives because we futilely attempt to control the Universe with our brain thinking it’s reality, not the other way around. It’s that simple.
Analogous to how Lust, Greed, and Gluttony arise from Envy, the last two of the Seven Deadly Sins, Wrath and Sloth arises from Pride. From the perspective of the quasi evolutionary psychology point of view of this blog series, Wrath and Sloth emerges in our Earthly lives from our fight or flight mechanism, respectively. That is, the simple rule we employ to decide to stand our ground or run away to live another day.
Recall from Part 2 that Pride only masks our fear, similar to how deodorant only masks body odor. Pridefulness is not genuine fearlessness. Pride is the reason we become wrathful, vengeful. We’re defending our self-worth, that thing which exists only in our mind and nowhere else.
Wrath is our conviction that the wrathful actions we are executing – or wish to act on – are indeed justified. It’s crucial for our minds to have that conviction as we’re battling our enemies because doubt will undermine our efforts. Whether we’re right or wrong, over or under-reacting, Wrath doesn’t let doubt trip us up, dissipating our focus.
Sloth also masks our fear so we can protect our pride. However, Sloth masks our fear in the opposite way of Pride by making excuses for not dealing with a problem for which success is far away. Sloth is procrastination – doing something you made yourself think is more important, or dulling the nagging of your mind with drugs and other vices.
Instead of masking our fear with wrath or sloth, why don’t we cut off the source of our fear? That is, the fear of losing what it is we’re clinging to. So cling to nothing. Stop clinging to your self-importance, even your hopes and dreams, and the most difficult of all – all the stuff you’ve always believed.
Well that’s easy to say. It’s even surprisingly easy to do once Life pushes you far enough. Hopefully, we can figure this out before we’re pushed that far.
But if we stopped caring about anything, wouldn’t we eventually get fired from our jobs, lose all of our things, dreams, and families? What happens if we stop working 70 hours per week? Maybe we’ll be replaced by someone who will.
What if we didn’t stop? Would we burn out and lose everything anyway? Would we be rewarded accordingly? In any case, it’s time that we’ll never get back, and that’s how we chose to use that time.
The Middle Way?
Surely, perpetually wrathful, vengeful, hateful, people can and often do end up being the ones driving the BMWs, living on Melody Lane, and wielding the power at work. These “successful” folks are the ones we notice and envy while ignoring those wrathful, vengeful people in jail or homeless or isolated, who just simply fizzled out.
Did those failed people simply not try hard enough, not understand the concept of “go big or go home”? Perhaps in some cases, one could have won if they were more committed, all-in to their fearsomeness. But like any other game, and the quest for material success is just a game, there can be only one winner. And there’s a whole lot of luck involved.
Contrary to the “wisdom” of “Go Big or Go Home”, in Buddhist literature it’s often said that Buddhism teaches a “middle way”. You know, Goldilocks chose Mama bear’s porridge because it was not too hot and not too cold. It was just right.
Siddhartha Gautama was an indulged, coddled Prince, not even knowing there was anything to fear. He eventually learned that this wasn’t the way for most of the world. He lived in a fantasy world. He wouldn’t survive if that fantasy world suddenly disappeared. And it very well could have, as it has for many other such coddled prince and princesses throughout history.
He then ran away, did a complete one-eighty living the life of an emaciated ascetic, near death, not much wiser. The many great self-inflicted pains did connect him to much of the “real” world, but he was still just as troubled. Then one day, after a nice meal brought to him by a nice village girl and a nice long sleep, he awoke on Bodhi Day to the wisdom of the middle way.
The “Middle Way” thought of in the Goldilocks context is easy to understand and it is usually a wise thing to follow. The Middle Way is indeed a very good simple rule of thumb, a heuristic, which is right more often than wrong. Unfortunately, Life is so complex that there is a mindbogglingly large number of things to which we need to be in the middle at any given time. We can barely manage staying is our lane, eating a hamburger, and carrying on a conversation while driving in rush-hour traffic. There’s only so much multi-tasking we can do.
The Middle Way is attractive, not only because it’s easy to understand, but because it doesn’t force us to give up anything completely. It keeps us from crashing on the side of the road, but it doesn’t vanquish those Seven Deadly Sins, tamed, but still lurking in our animal brains. They await you losing balance and starting a slippery slope.
Alcoholics Anonymous understands that. An alcoholic avoids trouble by never touching alcohol again, but you’re still always an alcoholic. There is no middle way in that case. The advice as you leave the rehab center isn’t “drink in moderation”.
That Middle Way is useful, but not nearly good enough. However, there is a different way, the Way that the Buddha intended. It’s a way that is in some sense not as simple as the middle way, but like many paradoxes in Buddhism, in some ways even simpler.
Go With the Flow vs Being One with the Universe
It’s easy to see how the Goldilocks context of the “middle way” can be mistaken for the different way. They both mean the right amount at the right place at the right time. But sometimes the middle way is a euphemism for half-assed and sometimes the different way requires going all-in.
For example, in the case of Wrath, it’s not a simple a matter of being neither too wrathful nor too unwrathful. Any level of Wrath in your heart pollutes your Enlightenment. But yet, we must go all-in with full wrath while pinned down by a bear. The different way, the Buddha’s way, is to not cling to anything – to be fully accepting of what Is. That’s certainly different as we’re all indoctrinated from birth with attachments to what we should want and the way things are.
When we hear the phrase, “Go with the Flow”, we imagine complete passivity such as a leaf flowing down a river as if it was just part of the water. But the intent of non-clinging, that is non-resistance, is subtly different. The leaf flowing down the river leaves (no pun intended) no sign of ever being there. It may as well not have been there. Without resistance, nothing in our Universe would exist. All the phenomena we experience, including our own selves, is the result of Yin and Yang friction where things meet.
Non-Resistance means no resistance to what Is. It means to be sensitive to what is and fully do your part with a light heart.
All things put up this resistance to things, but they don’t suffer as we do. Unlike we sentient humans, other things have no will of their own, just their mass and energy. Anthropomorphically speaking, things just 100% yield to the will of Everything else.
Remember, though, we do still compete with other creatures. Our primal brain does come in handy. Our sentience emerged out of a mechanism, our limbic brain. It evolved simply for creatures to compete with other creatures for survival. At a relatively mundane level, Wrath does at least get our head out of our ass. Ringo says, “Bettah mahd than sahd … but bettah yet, glahd … Lahds.”
A tricky thing about the virtues countering each of the Seven Deadly sins is that taken to extremes, it circles back to another sin. In this case, too much patience, the antidote to Wrath, can merge into Sloth. Too much diligence, the antidote to Sloth, creates a lot of unnecessary drama in the form of Greed, Envy, Lust, and Gluttony.
Wrath at the extreme is horrible when it leads to killing or ruining the lives of people with whom you have conflicts. The key word is conflict. If we have no conflicts, we have nothing to defend.
As just mentioned, the virtue typically considered the antidote to Wrath is Patience. “Patience” says to await the right moment, not necessarily never to react to something. This suggests that it’s not so much the acts of wrath itself – fighting, revenge, preemptive strikes – that is the sin. It’s impetuousness – taking actions without a complete awareness of the present. We jump to conclusions with outdated assumptions from the past, incomplete information from the present, and flawed predictions about the future.
People do get mugged. Sometimes bad things are done to us. But genuine patience means we should logically carry no burden of Wrath in our heart. Wrath really does weigh you down like carrying around a 200 pound cross everywhere you go. As I say, I don’t like to write about dependence on anything “supernatural”, but I nonetheless know that the Universe is surprisingly just.
It’s difficult to convey how can I suggest the logical train of thought that if we have no wrath, we have nothing to fear, which means we should cling to nothing, without concluding you may as well just walk away from your job, your friends and family? Mostly, it’s because simply walking away from what is in front of you is clinging to the Dream of Sloth. Sloth will get your brain to demonize everything around you so you feel justified in walking away.
Remember too that not everything is bad. Running away means you run away not just from what you think is bad, but all the good things that take a back seat in your mind, while you deal with those bad things. Your life is interconnected with all that is around you. Go back and read the beginning of this series, Envy.
Ringo says, “Even if ya have nuthin tah cling tah, ev’rythin’s still clingin tah you.” What this means is your suffering is your insistence on molding the world to your image. That “image” based on that pitifully inadequate model of the Universe we refer to as our brains.
At best, running away will hit the restart button for you to start again, but you’ll be no wiser. You’ll run the same patterns and soon enough end up in the same place, just another decade or two older. Whatever seems annoying in your life is just your rough edges being polished away. Lean into that seeming discomfort like you would with a good massage.
Another difficulty with writing about Buddhism is avoiding the invocation of very tired cliches, such as:
You don’t appreciate what you have until it’s gone.
Whatever doesn’t kill you makes you stronger.
We’ve all heard them. Chicago and Kelly Clarkson have sung these gems of wisdom to us. Yet there are still so many unhappy people in the world. After thousands of years of human sentience and a great many geniuses having said their part, humanity’s knowledgebase is an incredible treasure trove of wisdom that’s already here. Those cliches make sense, are difficult to intelligently argue against, and we can even offer logic holding up the wisdom. So why can’t we just fully digest these cliches and be happy?
Wouldn’t it be nice if we could all be born with that wisdom already wired into our heads? After all, we’re not born completely blank canvases. Of course, there are our instincts with are hard-wired or at least there is a foundation laid that makes it easy to learn certain things and build certain tastes. But for the most part, our immensely complex web of neurons and synapses is well beyond hard-wiring such wisdom encoded in our genes.
We’ll each need to learn those things unprogrammable in genes. The great thing is, unlike most creatures, we humans have that choice! Most brains aren’t capable of learning things like “you’re stronger than you think you are”. The problem is these cliches don’t mean much until you have context under which you can appreciate it. Without experiencing any pain, what good is it to know you’re stronger than you think you are? When you hear it, it has nothing in your brain to link itself to.
The answer lies in the complexity of our brains. We mostly learn the same lessons, but the wiring is different. Wisdom isn’t not like the bits on a DVD for installing software. Each character is carefully crafted by very highly skilled people, every copy is exactly the same. It’s Windows or Office or SQL Server.
This isn’t an inadequacy in humans. This learning that each of us has to do also means we’re capable of being wired to be whatever we need to be at the place and time of our life. Creatures not as loosely wired as we are have no choice but to be whatever they were born to be. In the whole scheme of things, it’s a small price to pay for sentience.
What Buddha promises with the Four Noble Truths and the Eight-fold Path (the recommendations enumerated as the 4th of the Four Noble Truths) is to eliminate suffering. He doesn’t promise to to solve the World’s problems with these teachings. Easing our pain is like restoring oxygen if we’re trapped in a cave. There’s nothing we can do to get ourselves out without it. But once we have oxygen, we can devise a way to get out of the cave using what is right there for us to use.
We sentient humans always need to know why we’re doing something. Our brains are constantly analyzing, constantly predicting what will happen. Knowing why an opponent does something is the secret to figuring out how to outsmart it. There are many paths to the same place, but fewer destinations. For example, there are tons of ways to satisfy hunger and many ways to get to our work place.
In my field of Business Intelligence, there is something called the last non-empty value, in English, the last known value. For example, a patient’s body weight. If we’re doing analysis, say predicting who may contract diabetes with the next three years, we probably haven’t seen many of those patients recently and will use that last weight, with the bad assumption that it’s better than no weight at all.
It’s good to ask questions about what’s happening now. Where asking questions becomes a pain in the ass is when we spend a great deal of time planning around a truckload of assumptions we’ve gathered over the years that may no longer be true. We’re afraid to ask questions because the answers have probably changed and that means our plan probably won’t work. By not asking questions, we can continue to work in our delusion.
There’s a Zen joke that goes: A candidate arrives at the site of her job interview for a Senior C# programming position. She is stopped by a burly security guard. He spurts out “Who are you? Where are you going? Why are you here?” She say to him, “Wow! I really want this job now because hopefully you’ll ask me that every day!”
Sometimes we completely forget why we’re angry, and since we always need to know why, we settle on something plausible if we can’t remember the original reason. It’s true – read Oliver Sachs’ great book, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. Sometimes our reasons aren’t really even our reasons, but a bill of goods we were sold.
Do lions hate gazelles? Is the praying mantis at the top of this post vengeful towards crickets? In the big picture, they are a Yin and Yang system within recursive levels of a much larger Yin and Yang system of dynamics. That dynamics is the mechanism of the evolution of Life on Earth, which at three-plus billion years old, is the secret of Her eternal youth. She is forever young because whatever Life on Earth looks like, it’s fit for now, was fit for all times past, and will be fit for whatever future there may be.